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1st Line Immune Kit
Posted by Robert Redfern on 12 August 2012 11:54 AM

The End of the Age of Antibiotics   See Video Here

Author Dr. Paul Clayton

‘We are facing a relentless increase in antibiotic resistance across all

classes of drug. The age of infectious disease control is coming to an end,

and most governments are asleep at the switch. By 2010, antibiotics will

be effectively useless.’ Professor George Poste, April ‘05

It would be unwise to ignore Professor Post’s alarming predictions. He heads the

Biodesign Unit at the University of Arizona, and is reckoned to be one of the most

influential clinical scientists on the planet. His expertise includes epidemiology, bioterrorism

and molecular biology, so he should know; but he is saying nothing new.

Back in 1992, Mitchell Cohen of the Centres for Disease Control in Atlanta published

a paper in Science entitled ‘Epidemiology of drug resistance: implications for a post

anti-microbial era’ (Cohen ’92). This paper, which went on to become one of the most

frequently cited scientific papers of all time, charted the relentless rise of antibiotic

resistance in hospitals and in the community between 1950 and 1990. But Cohen

wasn’t the first person to notice this either. Twenty three years before Cohen’s paper

was published, British concerns about increasing cases of antibiotic-resistant

salmonella in calf disease had lead to the setting up of the Joint Committee on the

Uses of Antibiotics in Animal Husbandry and Vetinary Medicine which, in a 1969

report, was already ringing alarm bells about the dangers of inappropriate antibiotic

use. This was a particularly prescient paper, and I am very proud of the fact that my

father, who sat on that committee, consistently argued for more stringent antibiotic


The Joint Committee’s recommendations on the seperation of growth-promoting and

therapeutic antibiotics were timely, widely acted on, and did a great deal to slow the

rise of antibiotic resistance in clinical medicine. Cohen’s paper, however, although

influential in academia, was not understood or acted on by governments anywhere;

and the scientific illiteracy of our political classes has lead us, inevitably, to the point

where Professor Poste is now sounding the death knell for antibiotics in general.

And here, we must step back and look again at the subject through the long lense of

history. Throughout recorded history – and undoubtedly throughout our pre-recorded

history also – the default causes of illness and death were starvation, trauma,

exposure, and above all infection. This is reflected in such folk tales as the Sleeping

Beauty, where the protagonist’s unnaturally prolonged sleep actually represents death

by septicaemia caused by a stick wound (the spindle); and the Pied Piper of

Hammelin, in which the mass loss of children represents the death of a generation

through a rat-borne epidemic.

The degenerative diseases that dominate public health today were minority issues, and

it was only when the infectious diseases were beaten back by improved sanitation,

vaccination and latterly the antibiotics, that the degenerative diseases assumed their

modern significance.

due to the importance of the infectious and epidemic diseases, Victorians regarded

death as an anticipated and a communal experience. Given that it was a more religious

age, such sentiments were usually couched in terms we would not commonly use

today – but the shared feeling is obvious: ‘the Lord gives strength to bear death, and

how good it is to feel that we have a family to greet us in heaven’ (Balfour, 1856)

This is in marked contrast to the intensely personalised perspective we have of death

today, due to the recent emergence of non-communicable diseases as prime causes of

death. The relative brevity of dying from infectious disease in the Victorian era

compared to today, when palliative medicine typically extends the dying phase by

years, also affected their view of both life and death: ‘Death came swiftly, as always

in these cases of infection, and in a day the child’s life ebbed away’ (Carey, 1888)

Why waste time and space in a nutritional journal on such issues? Because we are in

danger of losing the gains of the last century and reverting to a situation where, once

more, infection will be the greatest killer, and patterns of dying and death in the

OECD nations will no longer be distinguishable from those in the third world.

The loss of our antibiotic weapons, unhealthy population densities, mass travel and

mass dysnutrition could bring this about in our life-times; and if global warming leads

to even a 3 meter rise in sea levels, we will lose the bulk of our sewage processing

facilities. Factor in the so-called ‘Peak Oil’ effect’ where rising oil prices will make

our high energy pharmaceutical model of health care unsustainable, the continuing

spread of viral diseases such as HIV-1 and -2, Hepatitis-B and –C, and

Coxsackievirus B which between them infect around a third of the global population

(WHO Reports), and the pending flu pandemic which is predicted to kill up to 1.5%

of humanity all on its own, and the future does indeed look green - in a gangrenous

sort of way.

Nutritional therapists do not generally focus on infectious illnesses simply because

these have been so amenable to antibiotic treatment; but they must now begin to

consider what they can do to help reduce the risk of infection or to treat it when, as

they will increasingly do, the antibiotics fail.


Prevention, of course, is generally the best option; and when considering prophylaxis,

innate immune priming using the 1-3, 1-6 beta glucans derived fom yeast is clearly

the most effective option currently available. The only comparative data we have was

generated in 2006 at the James Graham Brown Cancer Centre at the University of

Louisville (Biothera data on file), and this showed that yeast-derived beta glucans

considerably out-perform all other immuno-primers including Reishi and Maitake

mushrooms, the mushroom-derived AHCC, and Echinacea. This is hardly surprising:

humans had to evolve strong immune defences against yeast infections, whereas we

are rarely infected / invaded by mushrooms! (Yeasts and fungi are members of the

same family, but the beta glucans in the cell walls of mushrooms have shorter 1-6

side-chains, making them less effective at occupying CR3 receptors and priming the

innate immue system.)

Prevention should also focus on general nutrition. Supplement manufacturers tell us

that vitamin C, zinc, omega three fatty acids or even probiotics are essential for

immune function; but the reality is that the complexity of the immune system means

that almost every micro- and phytonutrient plays some role in determining overall


For example, for the immune system to function properly requires extensive cell

division and the synthesis of many specific functional proteins and other

macromolecules. These processes require in turn an adequate intake of the essential

and conditionally essential amino acids; the conditionally essential amino sugars; at

least 12 trace elements (not just iron, zinc and selenium!); vitamins A, B2, B6, B12

and folic acid, C and D; and many other dietary factors, including the carotenoids –

the list goes on and on (ie Santos et al ’96, Hughes et al ‘97). It’s better not to waste

time on more restricted supplements, but to concentrate on a healthy diet and /or a

comprehensive micro- and phyto-nutrient support programme.

That approach, of course, is contra-indicated for virulent strains of flu, when death is

paradoxically more likely to occur if the immune system is functioning well. This is

due to the ability of some flu viruses to secrete a compound called Cytokine OX-40,

which prevents the apoptosis of activated T-cells (Humphreys et al ‘07)and thereby

precipitates an overwhelming inflammatory reaction that destroys the respiratory tract

(Chan et al ‘05). In this case it would be far wiser to concentrate on the beta glucans,

wich have been shown to increase resistance to infection and to reduce mortality in a

rodent influenza model (Mandeville ‘04), and to reduce respiratory tract damage in a

swine influenza model (Jung et al ‘04). This isn’t clinical proof, obviously, but it is

the best we are likely to get.

Oral health is important, and it is worth noting that the oropharynx is known,

colloquially, as ‘the ringmaster of infection’. This site is heavily colonised by many

different strains of pathogens and potential pathogens, and has been implicated as the

source of many auto-infections including URTI, UTI; and infections of the heart

valves and prostheses.

Many of the pathogenic microorganisms which colonise the oropharynx are only able

to do so are by forming biofilm, bacterial glucans which adhere to dental surfaces and

provide binding sites for the bacteria so that they are not washed out of the mouth by

salivary flow. This provides nutritional therapists with a potentially very powerful set

of tools, because dietary factors are critical here.

A healthy diet, rich in fruits and vegetables, contains phytonutrients which have direct

antibacterial properties against many of the pathogenic species in dental plaque

(Menezes et al ‘06). Other foods contain anti-adhesins which effectively remove

bacterial docking sites. Flavonoids in berry fruits such as the cranberry (Weiss et al

’04, Yamanaka et al ’04) do this by inhibiting the bacterial enzymes called

glucosyltransferases which build plaque. In countries such as Japan where edible

seaweeds are a staple, the sulphated polysaccharides contained in some marine algae

are also highly effective in preventing plaque formation by interfering with glucan

deposition (Saeki ’94, Saeki et al ’96). This approach has very recently been

developed as a nutritional supplement, standardised to its funoran content and sold to

dentists and vets as ‘PlaqueOff’. It is surprisingly effective at reducing and removing

plaque, and this mode of action will also protect against infection at other vulnerable

sites such as heart valves and prostheses, where biofilm is critically involved.

Our eyes, gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts are also protected by a complex array

of antibacterial enzymes such as lysozyme, lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase (Gerson et

al 2000); antimicrobial peptides including bacteriocins produced by probiotic species

such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli (Karaolu et al ’03), and defencins, produced by

our own epithelial cells (Goldman et al ’97). Backing all this up are innate immune

system phagocytic cells including macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes, and a

variety of immunoglobulins, complement factors and other compounds. This helps to

explain why the immune system requires such a wide range of nutritional support!

Due to our historically low levels of physical activity and calorie intakes, most people

today are depleted in the majority of micro- and phyto-nutrients. To make matters

worse, given our historically low levels of fruit and vegetable intake, intakes of foodderived

anti-bacterials and anti-adhesins are also compromised. And finally, given

modern agricultural and food processing technology, levels of the critically important

immuno-priming 1-3, 1-6 beta glucans (Czop ’88, DiRenzo et al ’91, Wakshull et al

‘99) are also at an all-time low. This combination of environmental and dietary factors

has inevitably reduced the effectiveness of our immune system(s); and helps to

explain why, for example, when we travel to less developed countries than our own,

we inevitably become infected by pathogens that the locals have no problems with.


Until very recently there has been no effective natural genuine antibiotic. That,

however, has now changed with the arrival of the all-natural lacto-peroxidase

hypothiocyanite ion delivery system. Sorry about the jargon – let me explain.

The lactoperoxidase (LPO) system is present in many secretions including tears,

saliva, milk and airway surface fluid. It has an incredibly broad spectrum of

antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, viruses and

fungi (Pruitt & Reiter ‘85); and is important for the control of microorganisms in milk

from lactating animals, and cell-mediated pathogen killing.

LPO utilises the commonly present thiocyanate ions as one substrate, producing

hypothiocyanite ions. These ions are extremely toxic to most microorganisms; they

are cell-permeable and can inhibit glycolysis as well as nicotinamide adenine

dinucleotide (NADH)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)–

dependent reactions in bacteria (Reiter & Perraudin ‘91). This is an impressive mode

of pathogen-killing, but LPO is also important in protecting host tissues. Its other

substrate is hydrogen peroxide, which is produced by a number of bacterial species

and in the inflammatory reactions mounted by the host, and is responsible for much

tissue damage. By preventing hydrogen peroxide buildup, LPO is a doubly important

defence mechanism.

(This explains the severe dental and gingival problems associated with xerostomia,

where the LPO system is deficient; and which are exaccerbated by reduced levels of

other defence compounds including lactoferrin, lysozyme and the secretory

immunoglobulins. In the management of xerostomia, salivary substitutes containing

LPO, lactoferrin and lysozyme have been shown to be highly effective (Dirix et al


The hypothiocyanite ions are not toxic to human cells, and have little if any effect on

probiotic species, making them a near-perfect antibiotic system. And if you’re

concerned about rsistance issues, reflect on this: it is very difficult indeed for

microorganisms to develop resistance to LPO. We know this because of it was easy

for pathogens to dvelop resistance to LPO we would not have survived as a species, as

a key element in our immune system would have been disabled.

The bactericidal effects of LPO can be effectively amplified by delivering

hypothiocyanite ions directly, either orally or by inhalation. This technology was

initially developed in France for food plant sterilisation, and subsequently adopted by

the WHO for bulk milk sterilisation. It has most recently been utilised as a therapeutic

stategy in the UK and in Finland, where it is widely used by the dental profession in

the prevention and management of periodontal disease. Marketed in the UK,

USA,Canada and Au by Good Health Naturally as ‘Ist Line’, this remarkable product

has rapidly gained a reputation as an extremely effective and safe antibiotic for use in

gut and systemic infections. I have included below a list of microorganisms against

which LPO has shown considerable (ie useful) activity:

            Bacteria                     Viruses      

Escherichia coli (10)

Yersinia enterocolitica (4)

Klebsiella pneumoniae (13)

Klebsiella oxytoca (10)

Streptococcus agalactiae

Streptococcus mutans

 Staphylococcus Aureus

Salmonella species (12)

Shigella sonnei (15)

Listeria monocytogenes

Acinetobacter species (40)

Neisseria species (20)

Haemophilus influenzae (20)

Campylobacter jejuni (14)

Aeromonas hydrophila (8)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6)

Capnocytophaga ochracea

Selenomonas sputigena

Wolinella recta

Enterobacter cloacae (12)

Herpes simplex virus

Immunodeficient virus

Respiratory syncytial virus


Candida albicans























Incidentally, LPO is a ferro-protein, and its effectivenessis therefore compromised by

a lack of iron. Iron depletion and deficiency are the most commonly encountered

malnutritional conditions, especially in women of child-bearing age, and this fully

justifies the inclusion of iron in any pharmaco-nutritional support programmes.


Pharmaceutical approaches to infection control are in danger of failing; some experts

say they ar already failing. The growing understanding of human immune functions,

and their modulation by dietary factors, opens a whole new area for nutritional and

pharmaco-nutritional intervention; which may eventually take over from the

antibiotics for both the prevention and treatment of infection. The LPO system

developed will play a very critical role in this shift. Already available to CAM

practitioners as a non-licensed supplement (without clear product claims), it is now

being developed as a licensed product with medicinal claims for use by the medical



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